SUMMARY The overall goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of community-wide indi-vidual exposures to residential wood smoke such that the impacts of wood combustion emis-sions on human health and the environment can be more accurately assessed. The study confirmed that low cost PM sensors can be utilized to provide spatially and temporally re-solved PM data. The results showed increases in PM associated with indoor combustion sources as well as daily and weekly patterns of occupancy and typical activity patterns. 1 INTRODUCTION During the last decade, there has been a substantial rise in the use of wood for space and water heating in North America. Wood combustion is a major source of airborne PM and related pollutants during the heating season in Rochester, NY (Wang et al., 2012). Since health outcomes may be triggered by hourly PM exposures (e.g., Gardner et al., 2014), tem-porally and spatially resolved estimates of wood smoke exposure are needed to assess whether health outcomes may be impacted by this source specific PM a few hours after ex-posure. 2 METHODS Continuous 1-minute indoor and outdoor PM and indoor CO concentrations were measured from November through April of 2015/16 and 2016/17 at 50 residences across Monroe County, near Rochester, New York (25 residences per season). Inclusion criteria for the study were homes that had wood burning appliances or homes for which the residents smelled wood smoke in the vicinity of their homes. Low cost Speck monitors (Airviz Inc., Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA), which use an infra-red LED-based Samyoung (South Korea) DSM501A dust sensor (size range 0.5 to 3 µm), were deployed for PM moni-toring. CO was measured using data loggers with electrochemical sensors (EL-USB-CO, Lascar Electronics, Erie, PA). During the second season, a thermocouple with a datalogger was attached to the wood burning appliance to record when the appliance was in use. 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The results of this study confirmed that wood-burning appliances increased indoor expo-sures to airborne particles in homes. Increases in wood-burning appliance temperature and indoor CO concentrations were associated with significant increases in indoor PM2.5 concen-trations. Other indoor PM sources include other combustion sources (e.g., gas stoves, can-dles) as well as non-combustions sources (e.g., cleaning). The mean indoor/outdoor (I/O) PM ratio was 1.7 for all homes, which increased to 2.5 when a combustion source was pre-sent (Figure 1). The link between human activity patterns and PM concentrations can be seen in the daily and weekly concentration cycles (Figure 2), with higher concentrations recorded during the weekends when people are expected to be home more. The daily pattern showed clear morn-ing and evening peaks. Hourly patterns on Saturdays and Sundays showed a peak that coin-cided with expected increased human activities in the home. Because concentrations meas-ured during the study were often lower than the nominal detection limit of the Speck PM monitors, and many combustion particles are in the size range below the nominal 0.5 µm sensor lower limit of detection, the estimated PM concentrations produced by wood combus-tion sources are likely to have been underestimated in this study. 5 CONCLUSIONS The outcome of the study provides improved estimated exposures at any given time during the heating season for these individuals. Future studies may use this approach for exposure assessment in combination with health outcomes.

Characterizing indoor-outdoor PM relationships using low cost monitors during two heating seasons in Rochester, New York

MASIOL M.;
2018

Abstract

SUMMARY The overall goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of community-wide indi-vidual exposures to residential wood smoke such that the impacts of wood combustion emis-sions on human health and the environment can be more accurately assessed. The study confirmed that low cost PM sensors can be utilized to provide spatially and temporally re-solved PM data. The results showed increases in PM associated with indoor combustion sources as well as daily and weekly patterns of occupancy and typical activity patterns. 1 INTRODUCTION During the last decade, there has been a substantial rise in the use of wood for space and water heating in North America. Wood combustion is a major source of airborne PM and related pollutants during the heating season in Rochester, NY (Wang et al., 2012). Since health outcomes may be triggered by hourly PM exposures (e.g., Gardner et al., 2014), tem-porally and spatially resolved estimates of wood smoke exposure are needed to assess whether health outcomes may be impacted by this source specific PM a few hours after ex-posure. 2 METHODS Continuous 1-minute indoor and outdoor PM and indoor CO concentrations were measured from November through April of 2015/16 and 2016/17 at 50 residences across Monroe County, near Rochester, New York (25 residences per season). Inclusion criteria for the study were homes that had wood burning appliances or homes for which the residents smelled wood smoke in the vicinity of their homes. Low cost Speck monitors (Airviz Inc., Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA), which use an infra-red LED-based Samyoung (South Korea) DSM501A dust sensor (size range 0.5 to 3 µm), were deployed for PM moni-toring. CO was measured using data loggers with electrochemical sensors (EL-USB-CO, Lascar Electronics, Erie, PA). During the second season, a thermocouple with a datalogger was attached to the wood burning appliance to record when the appliance was in use. 3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The results of this study confirmed that wood-burning appliances increased indoor expo-sures to airborne particles in homes. Increases in wood-burning appliance temperature and indoor CO concentrations were associated with significant increases in indoor PM2.5 concen-trations. Other indoor PM sources include other combustion sources (e.g., gas stoves, can-dles) as well as non-combustions sources (e.g., cleaning). The mean indoor/outdoor (I/O) PM ratio was 1.7 for all homes, which increased to 2.5 when a combustion source was pre-sent (Figure 1). The link between human activity patterns and PM concentrations can be seen in the daily and weekly concentration cycles (Figure 2), with higher concentrations recorded during the weekends when people are expected to be home more. The daily pattern showed clear morn-ing and evening peaks. Hourly patterns on Saturdays and Sundays showed a peak that coin-cided with expected increased human activities in the home. Because concentrations meas-ured during the study were often lower than the nominal detection limit of the Speck PM monitors, and many combustion particles are in the size range below the nominal 0.5 µm sensor lower limit of detection, the estimated PM concentrations produced by wood combus-tion sources are likely to have been underestimated in this study. 5 CONCLUSIONS The outcome of the study provides improved estimated exposures at any given time during the heating season for these individuals. Future studies may use this approach for exposure assessment in combination with health outcomes.
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