The reactivity of several phenols towards liquid phase alkylation with cyclohexene in the presence of heterogeneous and homogeneous acid catalyst at 358 K is studied. The comparison between Amberlyst 15 and CH3SO3H, as examples of heterogeneous and homogeneous systems, shows a higher activity of the former with different behavior of selectivity between the two systems, anyway, in both systems O-alkylation and ring alkylations occur. A remarkable difference in the selectivity of the ring alkylation between heterogeneous and homogeneous systems is observed: Amberlyst 15 shows a constant ortho/para ratio close to 2, while in the presence of CH3SO3H ortho/para is variable from 3 to 5, suggesting an involvement of the cyclohexyl phenyl ether rearrangement. This is proved also by a direct relationship between the ortho/para ratio and the concentration of the cyclohexyl phenyl ether when CH3SO3H is used as a catalyst. The formation of cyclohexyl aril ethers is reversible; on the contrary, ring alkylation appears irreversible. The reactivity of the dimethylphenols shows a strong influence of the steric hindrance of the substituent on the electrophilic attack of the cyclohexyl cation, which is poorly influenced by the inductive effect of the methyl group.

Acid catalyzed alkylation of phenols with cyclohexene: Comparison between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, influence of cyclohexyl phenyl ether equilibrium and of the substituent on reaction rate and selectivity

RONCHIN, Lucio;VAVASORI, Andrea;TONIOLO, Luigi
2012

Abstract

The reactivity of several phenols towards liquid phase alkylation with cyclohexene in the presence of heterogeneous and homogeneous acid catalyst at 358 K is studied. The comparison between Amberlyst 15 and CH3SO3H, as examples of heterogeneous and homogeneous systems, shows a higher activity of the former with different behavior of selectivity between the two systems, anyway, in both systems O-alkylation and ring alkylations occur. A remarkable difference in the selectivity of the ring alkylation between heterogeneous and homogeneous systems is observed: Amberlyst 15 shows a constant ortho/para ratio close to 2, while in the presence of CH3SO3H ortho/para is variable from 3 to 5, suggesting an involvement of the cyclohexyl phenyl ether rearrangement. This is proved also by a direct relationship between the ortho/para ratio and the concentration of the cyclohexyl phenyl ether when CH3SO3H is used as a catalyst. The formation of cyclohexyl aril ethers is reversible; on the contrary, ring alkylation appears irreversible. The reactivity of the dimethylphenols shows a strong influence of the steric hindrance of the substituent on the electrophilic attack of the cyclohexyl cation, which is poorly influenced by the inductive effect of the methyl group.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/10278/30058
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