Blockchain technology has become deeply integrated into modern life, offering diverse applications beyond its origins in cryptocurrency. Ethereum's transition to a Proof-of-Stake (PoS) consensus mechanism marks a significant milestone in blockchain development. However, this shift brings new challenges, including the Verifier's Dilemma. This paper focuses on Ethereum's Proof-of-Stake (PoS) implementation and delves into the Verifier's Dilemma, a challenge initially prevalent in PoW protocols concerning the efficient confirmation of transaction validity without excessive computational costs. In the context of PoS, validators strive to optimize rewards through timely attestation, knowing that delayed or erroneous attestation can lead to penalties. To tackle this dilemma, we introduce a quantitative model based on the Performance Evaluation Process Algebra~(PEPA). This research offers two significant contributions: (i) the identification of the Verifier's Dilemma problem within Ethereum's PoS protocol and (ii) the introduction of a base PEPA model that facilitates a comprehensive study and validation of potential solutions to this challenge. We believe that our work advances the understanding of the Verifier's Dilemma in PoS blockchain networks, laying the groundwork for addressing this crucial issue.

Crisis of Trust: Analyzing the Verifier's Dilemma in Ethereum's Proof-of-Stake Blockchain

Daria Smuseva;Ivan Malakhov;Andrea Marin;Sabina Rossi
In corso di stampa

Abstract

Blockchain technology has become deeply integrated into modern life, offering diverse applications beyond its origins in cryptocurrency. Ethereum's transition to a Proof-of-Stake (PoS) consensus mechanism marks a significant milestone in blockchain development. However, this shift brings new challenges, including the Verifier's Dilemma. This paper focuses on Ethereum's Proof-of-Stake (PoS) implementation and delves into the Verifier's Dilemma, a challenge initially prevalent in PoW protocols concerning the efficient confirmation of transaction validity without excessive computational costs. In the context of PoS, validators strive to optimize rewards through timely attestation, knowing that delayed or erroneous attestation can lead to penalties. To tackle this dilemma, we introduce a quantitative model based on the Performance Evaluation Process Algebra~(PEPA). This research offers two significant contributions: (i) the identification of the Verifier's Dilemma problem within Ethereum's PoS protocol and (ii) the introduction of a base PEPA model that facilitates a comprehensive study and validation of potential solutions to this challenge. We believe that our work advances the understanding of the Verifier's Dilemma in PoS blockchain networks, laying the groundwork for addressing this crucial issue.
In corso di stampa
2023 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10278/5045181
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