Rabies is an acute and lethal encephalomyelitis caused by lyssaviruses, among which rabies virus (RABV) is the most prevalent and important for public health. Although preventable through the post-exposure administration of rabies vaccine and immunoglobulins (RIGs), the disease is almost invariably fatal since the onset of clinical signs. Two human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), RVC20 and RVC58, have been shown to be effective in treating symptomatic rabies. To better understand how these mAbs work, we conducted structural modeling and in vitro assays to analyze their mechanisms of action, including their ability to mediate Fc-dependent effector functions. Our results indicate that both RVC20 and RVC58 recognize and lock the RABV-G protein in its pre-fusion conformation. RVC58 was shown to neutralize more potently the extra-cellular virus, while RVC20 mainly acts by reducing viral spreading from infected cells. Importantly, RVC20 was more effective in promoting effector functions compared to RVC58 and 17C7-RAB1 mAbs, the latter of which is approved for human rabies post-exposure treatment. These results provide valuable insights into the multiple mechanisms of action of RVC20 and RVC58 mAbs, offering relevant information for the development of these mAbs as treatment for human rabies.

Antiviral mechanisms of two broad-spectrum monoclonal antibodies for rabies prophylaxis and therapy

Castellan, Martina;Angelini, Alessandro;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Rabies is an acute and lethal encephalomyelitis caused by lyssaviruses, among which rabies virus (RABV) is the most prevalent and important for public health. Although preventable through the post-exposure administration of rabies vaccine and immunoglobulins (RIGs), the disease is almost invariably fatal since the onset of clinical signs. Two human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), RVC20 and RVC58, have been shown to be effective in treating symptomatic rabies. To better understand how these mAbs work, we conducted structural modeling and in vitro assays to analyze their mechanisms of action, including their ability to mediate Fc-dependent effector functions. Our results indicate that both RVC20 and RVC58 recognize and lock the RABV-G protein in its pre-fusion conformation. RVC58 was shown to neutralize more potently the extra-cellular virus, while RVC20 mainly acts by reducing viral spreading from infected cells. Importantly, RVC20 was more effective in promoting effector functions compared to RVC58 and 17C7-RAB1 mAbs, the latter of which is approved for human rabies post-exposure treatment. These results provide valuable insights into the multiple mechanisms of action of RVC20 and RVC58 mAbs, offering relevant information for the development of these mAbs as treatment for human rabies.
2023
14
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10278/5033260
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