Introduction: Several investigations have argued for a strong relationship between neuroinflammation and amyloid metabolism but it is still unclear whether inflammation exerts a pro-amyloidogenic effect, amplifies the neurotoxic effect of amyloid, or is protective. Methods: Forty-two patients with acute encephalitis (ENC) and 18 controls underwent an extended cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) panel of inflammatory, amyloid (Aβ40, 42, and 38, sAPP-α, sAPP-β), glial, and neuronal biomarkers. Linear and non-linear correlations between CSF biomarkers were evaluated studying conditional independence relationships. Results: CSF levels of inflammatory cytokines and neuronal/glial markers were higher in ENC compared to controls, whereas the levels of amyloid-related markers did not differ. Inflammatory markers were not associated with amyloid markers but exhibited a correlation with glial and neuronal markers in conditional independence analysis. Discussion: By an extensive CSF biomarkers analysis, this study showed that an acute neuroinflammation state, which is associated with glial activation and neuronal damage, does not influence amyloid homeostasis.
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