The human microbiome seeding starts at birth, when pioneer microbes are acquired mainly from the mother. Mode of delivery, antibiotic prophylaxis, and feeding method have been studied as modulators of mother-to-infant microbiome transmission, but other key influencing factors like modern westernized lifestyles with high hygienization, high-calorie diets, and urban settings, compared with non-westernized lifestyles have not been investigated yet. In this study, we explored the mother-infant sharing of characterized and uncharacterized microbiome members via strain-resolved metagenomics in a cohort of Ethiopian mothers and infants, and we compared them with four other cohorts with different lifestyles. The westernized and non-westernized newborns’ microbiomes composition overlapped during the first months of life more than later in life, likely reflecting similar initial breast-milk-based diets. Ethiopian and other non-westernized infants shared a smaller fraction of the microbiome with their mothers than did most westernized populations, despite showing a higher microbiome diversity, and uncharacterized species represented a substantial fraction of those shared in the Ethiopian cohort. Moreover, we identified uncharacterized species belonging to the Selenomonadaceae and Prevotellaceae families specifically present and shared only in the Ethiopian cohort, and we showed that a locally produced fermented food, injera, can contribute to the higher diversity observed in the Ethiopian infants’ gut with bacteria that are not part of the human microbiome but are acquired through fermented food consumption. Taken together, these findings highlight the fact that lifestyle can impact the gut microbiome composition not only through differences in diet, drug consumption, and environmental factors but also through its effect on mother-infant strain-sharing patterns.

Maternal and food microbial sources shape the infant microbiome of a rural Ethiopian population

Raffaetà, Roberta;
2023-01-01

Abstract

The human microbiome seeding starts at birth, when pioneer microbes are acquired mainly from the mother. Mode of delivery, antibiotic prophylaxis, and feeding method have been studied as modulators of mother-to-infant microbiome transmission, but other key influencing factors like modern westernized lifestyles with high hygienization, high-calorie diets, and urban settings, compared with non-westernized lifestyles have not been investigated yet. In this study, we explored the mother-infant sharing of characterized and uncharacterized microbiome members via strain-resolved metagenomics in a cohort of Ethiopian mothers and infants, and we compared them with four other cohorts with different lifestyles. The westernized and non-westernized newborns’ microbiomes composition overlapped during the first months of life more than later in life, likely reflecting similar initial breast-milk-based diets. Ethiopian and other non-westernized infants shared a smaller fraction of the microbiome with their mothers than did most westernized populations, despite showing a higher microbiome diversity, and uncharacterized species represented a substantial fraction of those shared in the Ethiopian cohort. Moreover, we identified uncharacterized species belonging to the Selenomonadaceae and Prevotellaceae families specifically present and shared only in the Ethiopian cohort, and we showed that a locally produced fermented food, injera, can contribute to the higher diversity observed in the Ethiopian infants’ gut with bacteria that are not part of the human microbiome but are acquired through fermented food consumption. Taken together, these findings highlight the fact that lifestyle can impact the gut microbiome composition not only through differences in diet, drug consumption, and environmental factors but also through its effect on mother-infant strain-sharing patterns.
2023
33
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10278/5019501
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