This work demonstrates terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in reflection configuration on a class of inorganic and mineral pigments. The technique is validated for pictorial materials against the limitations imposed by the back-reflection of the THz signal, such as weak signal intensity, multiple signal losses and distortion, as well as the current scarce databases. This work provides a detailed description of the experimental procedure and method used for the determination of material absorption coefficient of a group of 10 pigments known to be used in ancient frescoes, that are, Cu-based (azurite, malachite, and Egyptian blue), Pb-based (minium and massicot), Fe-based (iron oxide yellow, dark ochre, hematite, and Pompeii red) pigments and mercury sulfide (cinnabar), and classified the vibrational modes of the molecular oxides and sulfides for material identification. The results of this work showed that the mild signal in reflection configuration does not limit the application of THz-TDS on inorganic and mineral pigments as long as (i) the THz signal is normalized with a highly reflective reference sample, (ii) the secondary reflected signals from inner interfaces are removed with a filtering procedure, and (iii) the limitations at high frequencies imposed by the dynamic range of the instrument are considered. Under these assumptions, we were able to differentiate molecular phases of the same metal and identify azurite, Egyptian blue, minium, and cinnabar, isolating the molecular vibrations up to 125 cm(-1). The established approach demonstrated to be reliable, and it can be extended for the study of other materials, well beyond the reach of the heritage domain.

Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy in Reflection Configuration for Inorganic and Mineral Pigment Identification

Lamuraglia, Raffaella;Menegazzo, Federica;Bonetti, Stefano;Traviglia, Arianna
2022

Abstract

This work demonstrates terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in reflection configuration on a class of inorganic and mineral pigments. The technique is validated for pictorial materials against the limitations imposed by the back-reflection of the THz signal, such as weak signal intensity, multiple signal losses and distortion, as well as the current scarce databases. This work provides a detailed description of the experimental procedure and method used for the determination of material absorption coefficient of a group of 10 pigments known to be used in ancient frescoes, that are, Cu-based (azurite, malachite, and Egyptian blue), Pb-based (minium and massicot), Fe-based (iron oxide yellow, dark ochre, hematite, and Pompeii red) pigments and mercury sulfide (cinnabar), and classified the vibrational modes of the molecular oxides and sulfides for material identification. The results of this work showed that the mild signal in reflection configuration does not limit the application of THz-TDS on inorganic and mineral pigments as long as (i) the THz signal is normalized with a highly reflective reference sample, (ii) the secondary reflected signals from inner interfaces are removed with a filtering procedure, and (iii) the limitations at high frequencies imposed by the dynamic range of the instrument are considered. Under these assumptions, we were able to differentiate molecular phases of the same metal and identify azurite, Egyptian blue, minium, and cinnabar, isolating the molecular vibrations up to 125 cm(-1). The established approach demonstrated to be reliable, and it can be extended for the study of other materials, well beyond the reach of the heritage domain.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10278/5008203
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