High anthropogenic CO2 emissions are among the main causes of climate change. Herein, we investigate the use of CO2 for the synthesis of organic cyclic carbonates on metal-free nitrogen-doped carbon catalysts obtained from chitosan, chitin, and shrimp shell wastes, both in batch and in continuous flow (CF). The catalysts were characterized by N-2 physisorption, CO2-temperature-programmed desorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and CNHS elemental analysis, and all reactivity tests were run in the absence of solvents. Under batch conditions, the catalyst obtained by calcination of chitin exhibited excellent performance in the conversion of epichlorohydrin (selected as a model epoxide), resulting in the corresponding cyclic carbonate with 96% selectivity at complete conversion, at 150 degrees C and 30 bar CO2, for 4 h. On the other hand, in a CF regime, a quantitative conversion and a carbonate selectivity >99% were achieved at 150 degrees C, by using the catalyst obtained from shrimp waste. Remarkably, the material displayed an outstanding stability over a reaction run time of 180 min. The robustness of the synthetized catalysts was confirmed by their good operational stability and reusability: ca. (75 +/- 3)% of the initial conversion was achieved/retained by all systems, after six recycles. Also, additional batch experiments proved that the catalysts were successful on different terminal and internal epoxides.

Metal-Free N-Doped Carbons for Solvent-Less CO2 Fixation Reactions: A Shrimp Shell Valorization Opportunity

Polidoro, D
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Perosa, A
Supervision
;
Canton, P
Supervision
;
Selva, M
Supervision
2022

Abstract

High anthropogenic CO2 emissions are among the main causes of climate change. Herein, we investigate the use of CO2 for the synthesis of organic cyclic carbonates on metal-free nitrogen-doped carbon catalysts obtained from chitosan, chitin, and shrimp shell wastes, both in batch and in continuous flow (CF). The catalysts were characterized by N-2 physisorption, CO2-temperature-programmed desorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and CNHS elemental analysis, and all reactivity tests were run in the absence of solvents. Under batch conditions, the catalyst obtained by calcination of chitin exhibited excellent performance in the conversion of epichlorohydrin (selected as a model epoxide), resulting in the corresponding cyclic carbonate with 96% selectivity at complete conversion, at 150 degrees C and 30 bar CO2, for 4 h. On the other hand, in a CF regime, a quantitative conversion and a carbonate selectivity >99% were achieved at 150 degrees C, by using the catalyst obtained from shrimp waste. Remarkably, the material displayed an outstanding stability over a reaction run time of 180 min. The robustness of the synthetized catalysts was confirmed by their good operational stability and reusability: ca. (75 +/- 3)% of the initial conversion was achieved/retained by all systems, after six recycles. Also, additional batch experiments proved that the catalysts were successful on different terminal and internal epoxides.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10278/5008100
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