Exposure to active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) from both human and veterinary sources is an increasing threat to wildlife welfare and conservation. Notwithstanding, tracking the exposure to pharmaceuticals in non-target and sensitive vertebrates, including birds, is seldom performed and relies almost exclusively on analysing internal organs retrieved from carcasses or from experimentally exposed and sacrificed birds. Clearly, this excludes the possibility of performing large-scale monitoring. Analysing feathers collected from healthy birds may permit this, by detecting APIs in wild birds, including protected and declining species of waterbirds, without affecting their welfare. To this end, we set up a non-destructive method for analysing the presence of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) in the feathers of fledglings of both the Mediterranean gull (Ichtyaetus melanocephalus) and the Sandwich tern (Thalasseus sandvicensis). The presence of several NSAIDs and SSRIs above the method quantification limits have confirmed that feathers might be a suitable means of evaluating the exposure of birds to APIs. Moreover, the concentrations indicated that waterbirds are exposed to NSAIDs, such as diclofenac, ibuprofen and naproxen, and SSRIs, such as citalopram, desmethylcitalopram, fluvoxamine and sertraline, possibly due to their widespread use and incomplete removal in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The active ingredient diclofenac raises the primary concern for the ecosystem and the welfare of the waterbirds, due to its high prevalence (100% and 83.3% in Mediterranean gull and Sandwich tern, respectively), its concentrations detected in feathers (11.9 ng g−1 and 6.7 ng g−1 in Mediterranean gull and Sandwich tern, respectively), and its documented toxicity toward certain birds.

Assessing the exposure to human and veterinary pharmaceuticals in waterbirds: The use of feathers for monitoring antidepressants and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

Distefano, Gabriele Giuseppe;Zangrando, Roberta;Panzarin, Lucio;Gambaro, Andrea;Volpi Ghirardini, Annamaria;Picone, Marco
2022

Abstract

Exposure to active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) from both human and veterinary sources is an increasing threat to wildlife welfare and conservation. Notwithstanding, tracking the exposure to pharmaceuticals in non-target and sensitive vertebrates, including birds, is seldom performed and relies almost exclusively on analysing internal organs retrieved from carcasses or from experimentally exposed and sacrificed birds. Clearly, this excludes the possibility of performing large-scale monitoring. Analysing feathers collected from healthy birds may permit this, by detecting APIs in wild birds, including protected and declining species of waterbirds, without affecting their welfare. To this end, we set up a non-destructive method for analysing the presence of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) in the feathers of fledglings of both the Mediterranean gull (Ichtyaetus melanocephalus) and the Sandwich tern (Thalasseus sandvicensis). The presence of several NSAIDs and SSRIs above the method quantification limits have confirmed that feathers might be a suitable means of evaluating the exposure of birds to APIs. Moreover, the concentrations indicated that waterbirds are exposed to NSAIDs, such as diclofenac, ibuprofen and naproxen, and SSRIs, such as citalopram, desmethylcitalopram, fluvoxamine and sertraline, possibly due to their widespread use and incomplete removal in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The active ingredient diclofenac raises the primary concern for the ecosystem and the welfare of the waterbirds, due to its high prevalence (100% and 83.3% in Mediterranean gull and Sandwich tern, respectively), its concentrations detected in feathers (11.9 ng g−1 and 6.7 ng g−1 in Mediterranean gull and Sandwich tern, respectively), and its documented toxicity toward certain birds.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/10278/3754008
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