American Missionary Activities Under the U. S. Army Military Government and the Establishment of the Republic of Korea This article deals with American missionaries’ activities under the United States Army Military Government in Korea (USAMJIK) just after Korean liberation from Japan. The USAMGIK noticed the importance of this group in liberated Korea given the fact that they had worked in the realm of education, medicine, etc in Korea since the late 19th century. Some former missionaries or their children participated as officers or advisors in the USAMGIK as they collaborated with the U. S. government in the war aims against Japan during the Pacific War. Due to colonial experience, they also thought that Christianity and ‘Democracy' were not two different entities. Since there were physical difficulties in securing their return, only after a number of military members left and the economic stability, missionaries were able to come back to their former mission field. As missionaries had appeared since early 1946. they reestablished their missions around late 1947 and early 1948. The most important denomination was the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (PCUSA) and most returning members were ones who had tried to cooperate with the Japanese Authorities in terms of Shinto Shrine worship issue. Horace. H. Underwood was the key figure in that he helped the return of missionaries while securing mission properties. Under the new circumstances, PCUSA revived its influence through the financial aid to churches, schools, and hospitals, etc. Most missionaries preserved positive views on the birth of the Republic of Korea. The representative persons were H. H. Underwood and J. Ernest Fisher who joined the USAMGIK. Also, Homer B. Hulbert was an ardent supporter of the new Republic. Some persons with missionary background such as Arthur C. Bunce and George M. McCune, both State Department officials and university professors, showed critical attitudes towards the ROK as well as the USAMGIK. They argued that only the meaningful social reforms would brought more healthy regime to Korean peninsula with anti-Communistic tone. The ROK with the president Syngman Rhee tried to make a favorable environment for missionary activities. Medal awarding and state-level funerals for the deceased missionaries were a few examples. The close relationship between missionaries and the ROK shed some lights on the characteristics of the new Republic.

“Mi kunjŏng ch’amyŏ Miguk sŏn’gyosa-kwallyŏn insadŭl ŭi hwaltong kwa Taehan Min’guk chŏngbu surip” [The activity of American missionaries and the related personnel participating in the American military administration and the establishment of the Republic of Korea government]

Jong-Chol An
2009

Abstract

American Missionary Activities Under the U. S. Army Military Government and the Establishment of the Republic of Korea This article deals with American missionaries’ activities under the United States Army Military Government in Korea (USAMJIK) just after Korean liberation from Japan. The USAMGIK noticed the importance of this group in liberated Korea given the fact that they had worked in the realm of education, medicine, etc in Korea since the late 19th century. Some former missionaries or their children participated as officers or advisors in the USAMGIK as they collaborated with the U. S. government in the war aims against Japan during the Pacific War. Due to colonial experience, they also thought that Christianity and ‘Democracy' were not two different entities. Since there were physical difficulties in securing their return, only after a number of military members left and the economic stability, missionaries were able to come back to their former mission field. As missionaries had appeared since early 1946. they reestablished their missions around late 1947 and early 1948. The most important denomination was the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (PCUSA) and most returning members were ones who had tried to cooperate with the Japanese Authorities in terms of Shinto Shrine worship issue. Horace. H. Underwood was the key figure in that he helped the return of missionaries while securing mission properties. Under the new circumstances, PCUSA revived its influence through the financial aid to churches, schools, and hospitals, etc. Most missionaries preserved positive views on the birth of the Republic of Korea. The representative persons were H. H. Underwood and J. Ernest Fisher who joined the USAMGIK. Also, Homer B. Hulbert was an ardent supporter of the new Republic. Some persons with missionary background such as Arthur C. Bunce and George M. McCune, both State Department officials and university professors, showed critical attitudes towards the ROK as well as the USAMGIK. They argued that only the meaningful social reforms would brought more healthy regime to Korean peninsula with anti-Communistic tone. The ROK with the president Syngman Rhee tried to make a favorable environment for missionary activities. Medal awarding and state-level funerals for the deceased missionaries were a few examples. The close relationship between missionaries and the ROK shed some lights on the characteristics of the new Republic.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/10278/3729133
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