The development and implementation of effective policies for controlling PM2.5 mass concentrations and protecting human health depend upon the identification and apportionment of its sources. In this study, the PM2.5 sources affecting 6 urban and 2 rural sites across New York State during the period 2005–2016 were determined. The extracted profiles were compared to identify state-wide common profiles. The source contributions provide detailed, long-term quantification of the emission sources across the state during the investigated period (2005–2016). Seven factors were common to all sites: secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate, spark-ignition emissions, diesel emissions, road dust, biomass burning, and pyrolyzed organic (OP) rich. The largest contributors were secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate, spark-ignition (gasoline), diesel, and OP-rich. Secondary sulfate concentrations ranged from 2.3 μg m−3 at Whiteface to 3.2 μg m−3 at Buffalo and the Bronx. The highest secondary sulfate fractional contributions were found at the rural sites (∼46% of PM2.5 mass) also showed the highest OP-rich contributions (∼19%). Secondary nitrate showed the highest concentrations at the urban sites representing ∼17% of PM2.5 mass (1.6 ± 0.3 μg m−3 on average). Urban sites also showed the highest average spark-ignition concentrations (1.7 ± 0.2 μg m−3, ∼18%) and diesel emissions (1.0 ± 0.2 μg m−3, ∼10%). During this period, secondary sulfate concentrations declined likely related to the implementation of mitigation strategies for controlling SO2 emissions and the changing economics of electricity generation. Similarly, diesel and secondary nitrate showed decreases in concentrations likely associated with the introduction of emissions controls and improved quality fuels for heavy-duty diesel on-road trucks and buses. Spark-ignition concentrations showed an increase across the state during 2014–2016 associated with the increase of registered vehicles in New York State.
|Titolo:||A long-term source apportionment of PM2.5 in New York State during 2005–2016|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||2.1 Articolo su rivista |