The United States has experienced substantial air pollutant emissions reductions in the last two decades. Among others, emissions produced by electricity generation plants and industries were significantly lowered. Ultralow (<15 ppm) sulfur fuels were introduced for road vehicles, nonroad, rail, and maritime transport. New heavy-duty diesel trucks have been equipped with particle traps and NOx controls. Residual oil (No. 6) for space heating and for any other purpose was replaced with cleaner No. 2 and No. 4 oils. Chemical speciation of PM2.5 has been measured since 2005 at eight sites across the New York State. A prior study has identified and apportioned the major sources of PM2.5 across the State using receptor modelling (positive matrix factorization). This present study aims to investigate the long-term trends of those source-apportioned PM2.5 mass contributions from 2005 to 2016 at the eight sites: two rural sites (Pinnacle and Whiteface), three medium sized cities (Buffalo, Albany, Rochester), and three sites in the New York City metropolitan area (Bronx, Manhattan and Queens). Negative trends from 2005 to 2016 were detected across the state for secondary sulfate (from −0.19 μg/m3/y in Rochester to −0.36 μg/m3/y at BRO and QUE) and secondary nitrate (from −0.02 μg/m3/y at the rural sites to approximately −0.2 μg/m3/y at BRO and MAN). Spark-ignition vehicles were the only source type experiencing upward annual trends at all urban sites with slopes ranging from 0.02 μg/m3/y (ROC, not statistically significant) to ∼0.2 μg/m3/y (Albany, Bronx, Manhattan). Other sources exhibited different trends among the sites. The relationships of source contributions with emissions inventories were explored with regression analysis. A new trajectory model, differential concentration-weighted trajectories (DCWT), was used to examine spatial changes in sources of secondary aerosol affecting the rural sites.

Long-term trends (2005–2016) of source apportioned PM2.5 across New York State

MASIOL M;SQUIZZATO S;
2019

Abstract

The United States has experienced substantial air pollutant emissions reductions in the last two decades. Among others, emissions produced by electricity generation plants and industries were significantly lowered. Ultralow (<15 ppm) sulfur fuels were introduced for road vehicles, nonroad, rail, and maritime transport. New heavy-duty diesel trucks have been equipped with particle traps and NOx controls. Residual oil (No. 6) for space heating and for any other purpose was replaced with cleaner No. 2 and No. 4 oils. Chemical speciation of PM2.5 has been measured since 2005 at eight sites across the New York State. A prior study has identified and apportioned the major sources of PM2.5 across the State using receptor modelling (positive matrix factorization). This present study aims to investigate the long-term trends of those source-apportioned PM2.5 mass contributions from 2005 to 2016 at the eight sites: two rural sites (Pinnacle and Whiteface), three medium sized cities (Buffalo, Albany, Rochester), and three sites in the New York City metropolitan area (Bronx, Manhattan and Queens). Negative trends from 2005 to 2016 were detected across the state for secondary sulfate (from −0.19 μg/m3/y in Rochester to −0.36 μg/m3/y at BRO and QUE) and secondary nitrate (from −0.02 μg/m3/y at the rural sites to approximately −0.2 μg/m3/y at BRO and MAN). Spark-ignition vehicles were the only source type experiencing upward annual trends at all urban sites with slopes ranging from 0.02 μg/m3/y (ROC, not statistically significant) to ∼0.2 μg/m3/y (Albany, Bronx, Manhattan). Other sources exhibited different trends among the sites. The relationships of source contributions with emissions inventories were explored with regression analysis. A new trajectory model, differential concentration-weighted trajectories (DCWT), was used to examine spatial changes in sources of secondary aerosol affecting the rural sites.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/10278/3723762
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