In this paper we present a novel combined electrochemical-spectroscopic approach suitable to monitor trace levels of heavy metals directly in edible oils. The method is based on the electrochemical preconcentration/extraction of the analyte from the tested real matrix by cathodic deposition onto a Pt working electrode, then transfer and anodic re-oxidation of the metallic deposit to a “clean” aqueous solution, suitable for the subsequent spectroscopic analysis. The procedure has been here focused to the determination of lead in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), performed by applying ICP-QMS or GFAAS techniques. To this aim, the EVOO samples were mixed with proper amounts of the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) [P14,6,6,6]+[NTf2]-, in order to obtain a non-aqueous supporting electrolyte suitable for the electrodeposition process. The feasibility and performance of the analytical strategy were at first tested in standard solutions of Pb(II) in RTIL, produced by anodic dissolution of lead in the RTIL, as well as in olive oil samples mixed with 0.5 M RTIL and spiked with known amounts of Pb(II). The optimization of the electrochemical parameters was achieved by applying a D-Optimal Design, properly set up to optimise the efficiency of the deposition and re-oxidation steps, quantitative recovery and measurement time. Finally, the analytical procedure was applied to the determination of Pb content in some Italian EVOOs, without any need of performing mineralization pretreatments. Data obtained with the proposed procedure satisfactorily agree with those achieved by ICP-QMS analysis after microwave digestion, being differences between the two approaches within 10%, with the advantage of reducing to half the pretreatment time, operating at room temperature and avoiding the use of aggressive solvents.
Baldo, Maria Antonietta (Corresponding)
|Titolo:||Electrochemical preconcentration coupled with spectroscopic techniques for trace lead analysis in olive oils|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2020|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||2.1 Articolo su rivista |
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