A sequential TIE procedure combining in a single framework Phase I manipulations and Phase II methods, including chemical analyses and complementary Phase I treatments, was proposed for characterization and identification of toxicants of concern in estuarine environments. Interstitial water was chosen as test matrix and embryo-larval development with the bivalve Crassostrea gigas as toxicity endpoint. TIE treatments included addition of Ulva rigida and elution through zeolite column for addressing effects due to ammonia, addition of EDTA and elution through a Cation-Exchange Solid-Phase Extraction column for characterize metals, and elution through two different type of polymers (XAD and DPA) with different affinity for polar and nonpolar organic pollutants. Chemical analyses concerned determination of ammonia and trace elements in the untreated sample and after manipulation intended to remove or modify bioavailability of ammonia and metals. The “hybrid” Phase I–Phase II TIE sequence proved to be a reliable and effective tool for the identification of main toxicant of concern in a highly toxic and contaminated interstitial water sample, also in presence of high concentration of potential confounding factors (ammonia). The addition of U. rigida was the more reliable treatment for the removal of ammonia, due to the concurrent release of particles and potentially toxic elements, such as Ba, Rb, and Tl by zeolite column, which may increase toxicity in the post-column sample. The combined use of polymers with different affinity for the various classes of organic pollutants was essential to identify the contribution of polar organic compounds to the observed toxicity.
Picone, Marco (Corresponding)
|Titolo:||A Hybrid Phase I–Phase II Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) for the Simultaneous Characterization and Identification of Toxicants of Concern in Coastal and Estuarine Environments|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||2.1 Articolo su rivista |