Aim: The introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS) via man-made corridors connecting previously disparate oceanic regions is increasing globally. However, the environmental and anthropogenic factors facilitating invasion dynamics and their interactions are still largely unknown. This study compiles and inputs available data for the NIS bivalve Brachidontes pharaonis across the invaded biogeographic range in the Mediterranean basin into a species distribution model to predict future spread under a range of marine scenarios. Location: Mediterranean Sea. Methods: A systematic review produced the largest presence database ever assembled to inform the selection of biological, chemical and physical factors linked to the spread of B. pharaonis through the Suez Canal. We carried out a sensitivity analysis to simulate current and future trophic and salinity scenarios. A species distribution model was run to determine key drivers of invasion, quantify interactive impacts arising from a range of trophic states, salinity conditions and climatic scenarios and forecast future trajectories for the spread of NIS into new regions under multiple-parameter scenarios (based on the main factors identified from the systematic review). Results: Impacts on invasion trajectory arising from climate change and interactions with increasing salinity from the new opening of the canal were the primary drivers of expansion across the basin, the effects of which were further enhanced by eutrophication. Predictions of the current distribution were most accurate when multiple stressors were used to drive the model. A habitat suitability index developed at a subcontinental scale from model outputs identified novel favourable conditions for future colonization at specific locations under 2030 and 2050 climatic scenarios. Main conclusions: Future expansion of B. pharaonis will be enhanced by climate-facilitated increased sea temperature, interacting with increasing pressures from salinity and eutrophication. The spatially explicit risk output maps of invasions represent a powerful visual product for use in communication of the spread of NIS and decision-support tools for scientists and policymakers. The suggested approach, the observed distribution pattern and driving processes can be applied to other NIS species and regions by providing novel forecasts of species occurrences under future multiple stressor scenarios and the location of suitable recipient habitats with respect to anthropogenic and environmental parameters.
|Titolo:||Multiple stressors facilitate the spread of a non-indigenous bivalve in the Mediterranean Sea|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||2.1 Articolo su rivista |