A measurement campaign was performed between 04/03/2013 and 17/07/2013 for simultaneous collection of PM2.5 samples in two nearby sites in southeastern Italy: an urban site and an urban background site. PM2.5 at the two sites were similar; however, the chemical composition and the contributions of the main sources were significantly different. The coefficients of divergence (CODs) showed spatial heterogeneity of EC (higher at the urban site because of traffic emissions) and of all metals. Major ions (NH+4,Na+, and SO2-4) and OC had low CODs, suggesting a homogeneous distribution of sea spray, secondary sulfate, and secondary organic matter (SOM = 1.6*OCsec, where OCsec is the secondary OC). The strong correlations between Na+ and Cl-, and the lowCl-/Na+ ratios, suggested the presence of aged sea spraywith chloride depletion (about 79% of Cl-) and for-mation of sodium nitrate at both sites. In both sites, the non-sea-salt sulfate was about 97% of sulfate, and the strong correlation between SO2-4 and NH+4 indicated that ammonium was present as ammonium sulfate. How-ever, during advection of Saharan Dust, calcium sulfate was present rather than ammonium sulfate. The source apportionment was performed using the Positive Matrix Factorization comparing outputs of model EPA PMF 3.0 and 5.0 version. Six aerosol sources were identified at both sites: traffic, biomass burning, crustal- resuspended dust, secondary nitrate, marine aerosol, and secondary sulfate. The PMF3.0 model was not completely able, in these sites, to separate marine contribution from secondary nitrate and secondary sulfate fromOC, underestimating themarine contribution and overestimating the secondary sulfatewith respect to stoi- chiometric calculations. The application of speci?c constraints on PMF5.0 provided cleaner profiles, improving the comparison with stoichiometric calculations. The seasonal trends revealed larger biomass burning contribu- tions during the cold period at both sites due to domestic heating emissions added to those of agricultural prac-tices. Secondary aerosol represented about 50% of PM2.5 at both sites (about 1/3 due to SOM), with a slight increase during the cold season, probably due to the formation of secondary OC via gas-to-particle conversion. Secondary inorganic aerosol (nitrate plus sulfate) did not show seasonal trend because the reduction of nitrate due to thermal instability during thewarmseason was compensated by an almost equivalent increase of sulfate.

An inter-comparison of PM2.5 at urban and urban background sites: Chemical characterization and source apportionment

MERICO, EVA;
2016-01-01

Abstract

A measurement campaign was performed between 04/03/2013 and 17/07/2013 for simultaneous collection of PM2.5 samples in two nearby sites in southeastern Italy: an urban site and an urban background site. PM2.5 at the two sites were similar; however, the chemical composition and the contributions of the main sources were significantly different. The coefficients of divergence (CODs) showed spatial heterogeneity of EC (higher at the urban site because of traffic emissions) and of all metals. Major ions (NH+4,Na+, and SO2-4) and OC had low CODs, suggesting a homogeneous distribution of sea spray, secondary sulfate, and secondary organic matter (SOM = 1.6*OCsec, where OCsec is the secondary OC). The strong correlations between Na+ and Cl-, and the lowCl-/Na+ ratios, suggested the presence of aged sea spraywith chloride depletion (about 79% of Cl-) and for-mation of sodium nitrate at both sites. In both sites, the non-sea-salt sulfate was about 97% of sulfate, and the strong correlation between SO2-4 and NH+4 indicated that ammonium was present as ammonium sulfate. How-ever, during advection of Saharan Dust, calcium sulfate was present rather than ammonium sulfate. The source apportionment was performed using the Positive Matrix Factorization comparing outputs of model EPA PMF 3.0 and 5.0 version. Six aerosol sources were identified at both sites: traffic, biomass burning, crustal- resuspended dust, secondary nitrate, marine aerosol, and secondary sulfate. The PMF3.0 model was not completely able, in these sites, to separate marine contribution from secondary nitrate and secondary sulfate fromOC, underestimating themarine contribution and overestimating the secondary sulfatewith respect to stoi- chiometric calculations. The application of speci?c constraints on PMF5.0 provided cleaner profiles, improving the comparison with stoichiometric calculations. The seasonal trends revealed larger biomass burning contribu- tions during the cold period at both sites due to domestic heating emissions added to those of agricultural prac-tices. Secondary aerosol represented about 50% of PM2.5 at both sites (about 1/3 due to SOM), with a slight increase during the cold season, probably due to the formation of secondary OC via gas-to-particle conversion. Secondary inorganic aerosol (nitrate plus sulfate) did not show seasonal trend because the reduction of nitrate due to thermal instability during thewarmseason was compensated by an almost equivalent increase of sulfate.
2016
174
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10278/3676276
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