PM1 is widely believed to provide better information on the anthropogenic fraction of particulate matter pollution than PM2.5. However, data on PM1 are still limited in Europe as well as comprehensive information about its chemical composition and source apportionment and this gap is more evident in the pollution hot-spots still remaining in Europe, such as the Po Valley (Northern Italy). Elemental and organic carbon, 7 water soluble inorganic ions and 17 elements were quantified in 117 PM1 samples collected at an urban background site in Venice-Mestre, a large city located in the eastern Po Valley, during winter (December 2013-February 2014) and summer (May-July 2014) periods.Results show a strong seasonality for PM1 mass concentration (averages ranging from 6 +/- 2 in summer to 34 +/- 24 mu g m(-3) in winter) and for most of the analysed species. Components mainly related to road traffic, residential heating, biomass burning and secondary inorganic aerosol (ammonium nitrate) reached their highest levels in winter, while mineral dust and marine components were elevated in summer. PMF analysis revealed 7 potential sources. Secondary inorganic aerosol (33%) and biomass burning (33%) are the major contributor in winter followed by EC-primary emissions (16%), aged sulphate (6%), road traffic (7%), fossil fuel combustion (%) and marine aerosol (3%). During summer, these sources account for 12%, 14%, 20%, 22%, 8%, 14% and 10%, respectively. Some PM1 sources are located near the sampling site (residential area, traffic road, industrial area) but a major contribution of long range transport is observed when high pollution events occur. The results give useful insights into PM1 composition in an urban area and chemical profiles of sources helpful in the interpretation of receptor model results. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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|Titolo:||Factors, origin and sources affecting PM1 concentrations and composition at an urban background site|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2016|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||2.1 Articolo su rivista |
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|Stefania-2016.pdf||Articolo Principale||Versione dell'editore||Accesso chiuso-personale||Riservato|