Background Age, period and cohort (APC) analyses, using representative, population-based descriptive data, provide additional understanding behind increased prevalence rates. Methods Data on obesity and diabetes from the South Australian (SA) monthly chronic disease and risk factor surveillance system from July 2002 to December 2013 (n = 59,025) were used. Age was the self-reported age of the respondent at the time of the interview. Period was the year of the interview and cohort was age subtracted from the survey year. Cohort years were 1905 to 1995. All variables were treated as continuous. The age-sex standardised prevalence for obesity and diabetes was calculated using the Australia 2011 census. The APC models were constructed with "apcfit" in Stata. Results The age-sex standardised prevalence of obesity and diabetes increased in 2002-2013 from 18.6% to 24.1% and from 6.2% to 7.9%. The peak age for obesity was approximately 70 years with a steady increasing rate from 20 to 70 years of age. The peak age for diabetes was approximately 80 years. There were strong cohort effects and no period effects for both obesity and diabetes. The magnitude of the cohort effect is much more pronounced for obesity than for diabetes.The APC analyses showed a higher than expected peak age for both obesity and diabetes, strong cohort effects with an acceleration of risk after 1960s for obesity and after 1940s for diabetes, and no period effects. Conclusion By simultaneously considering the effects of age, period and cohort we have provided additional evidence for effective public health interventions.

According to the literature, women coming from countries with strong migratory pressure are at a greater risk of cancer of the cervix with respect to Italian women. This is connected with the fact that women born outside Italy are less likely to undergo a cervical smear. In the Veneto Region the official immigrant population is equivalent to approximately 10% of the total population. This article analyzes the utilization of cervical smear from immigrant women in the Veneto Region, taking into account the smears performed both inside and outside organized screening programmes. Data have been gathered both from the archives of the screening programmes of the Local Health Authorities and from PASSI, a national surveillance system based on a standardized questionnaire administered through telephone interviews. The screening crude participation rate among foreign women was 45.3%, only slightly lower than the one of Italian women. The participation is lower in women from Asia and in women above 50 years. The percentage of positive smear tests was 2.7% among Italian women and 4.0% among foreign women. Compliance to colposcopy has been 89.9% for Italian women and 88.1% for foreign women. The detection rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II or worse (CIN II+ diagnoses) in foreign women has been twofold the one detected in Italian women. If we consider the number of smear tests carried out in the last three years and outside the context of screening programmes, the number of women who have undergone a pap smear is much higher among Italian women, women 39-45 years old and women with a high level of education and without particular economic difficulties. The opposite is true for the organized screening programmes, where the differences according to age, level of education, economic difficulties and citizenship are reduced. These data confirm that women coming from countries with strong migratory pressure are at a greater risk of cancer of the cervix with respect to Italian women. A decrease in inequalities (in terms of education level, socio-economical status and nationality) is shown when considering the access to the screening programs.

The Use of a Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance System to Determine the Age, Period and Cohort Effects on the Prevalence of Obesity and Diabetes in South Australian Adults-2003-2013

CAMPOSTRINI, Stefano
2015-01-01

Abstract

Background Age, period and cohort (APC) analyses, using representative, population-based descriptive data, provide additional understanding behind increased prevalence rates. Methods Data on obesity and diabetes from the South Australian (SA) monthly chronic disease and risk factor surveillance system from July 2002 to December 2013 (n = 59,025) were used. Age was the self-reported age of the respondent at the time of the interview. Period was the year of the interview and cohort was age subtracted from the survey year. Cohort years were 1905 to 1995. All variables were treated as continuous. The age-sex standardised prevalence for obesity and diabetes was calculated using the Australia 2011 census. The APC models were constructed with "apcfit" in Stata. Results The age-sex standardised prevalence of obesity and diabetes increased in 2002-2013 from 18.6% to 24.1% and from 6.2% to 7.9%. The peak age for obesity was approximately 70 years with a steady increasing rate from 20 to 70 years of age. The peak age for diabetes was approximately 80 years. There were strong cohort effects and no period effects for both obesity and diabetes. The magnitude of the cohort effect is much more pronounced for obesity than for diabetes.The APC analyses showed a higher than expected peak age for both obesity and diabetes, strong cohort effects with an acceleration of risk after 1960s for obesity and after 1940s for diabetes, and no period effects. Conclusion By simultaneously considering the effects of age, period and cohort we have provided additional evidence for effective public health interventions.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10278/3660817
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