Background, aim, and scope: An innovative stabilization/solidification (S/S) process using high-performance additivated concrete technology was developed for remediating soil contaminated by metals from abandoned industrial sites. In order to verify the effectiveness of this new ex situ S/S procedure, an area highly contaminated by metallic pollutants (As, Cd, Hg, and Pb), due to the uncontrolled discharge of waste generated from artistic glass production on the island of Murano (Venice, Italy), was selected as a case study. The technique transforms the contaminated soil into an aggregate material suitable for reuse as on-site backfill. This paper reports the main results of the demonstration project performed in collaboration with the local environmental protection agency (ARPAV). Materials and methods: An ex situ treatment for brownfield remediation, based on the transformation of contaminated soil into very dense, low porous, and mechanically resistant granular material, was set up and tested. Specific additives (water reducers and superplasticizers) to improve the stabilized material properties were developed and patented. A demonstration plant assembled on the study area to treat 6 m3 h -1was then tested. After excavation, the contaminated soil was screened to remove coarse material. The fraction ∅>4 mm (coarse fraction), mainly composed of glass, brick, concrete, and stone debris, was directly reused on site after passing through a washing treatment section. The highly polluted fraction ∅ 4 mm (fine fraction) was treated in the S/S treatment division of the plant (European patent WO/2006/097272). The fine fraction was mixed with Portland cement and additives defined on the basis of the high performance concrete technique. the mixture was then granulated in a rolling-plate system. After 28 days curing in an onsite storage area to allow for cement hydration, the stabilized material was monitored before its in situ relocation. The chemical, mechanical, and ecotoxicological reliability and performance of the treatment was checked. Metal leachability was verified according to four leaching test methods: Italian Environmental Ministry Decree (1998), EN 12457 (2002) tout court, amended only with MgSO4 and, lastly, with artificial sea water. The mechanical properties were measured according to BS (1990) and AASHTO (1999) to obtain the Aggregate Crushing Value and California Bearing Ratio, in that order. Moreover, leachate samples prepared with artificial seawater were assessed via the Crassostrea gigas embryotoxicity test and Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition test to discriminate the presence of potential ecotoxicological effects for the brackish and saltwater biota. Results: Outcomes from all leachate samples highlighted the effectiveness of the remediation treatment, fully complying with the Italian legislation for non-hazardous material reuse under a physicochemical viewpoint. The stabilized granular material demonstrated high mechanical strength, low porosity, and leachability. Moreover, ecotoxicological surveys indicated the presence of low toxicity levels in leachate samples according to both toxicity tests. Discussion: Remediated soil samples revealed a significant decrease in leachability of heavy metals as a consequence of the application of additivated cement that enhanced granular material properties, resulting in improved compactness due to the reduction in water content. The toxicity data confirmed this state-of-the-art technique, indicating that leachates could be deemed as minor acutely toxic. Conclusions: The proposed S/S treatment proved to be able to remediate soil contaminated by heavy metals through trapping pollutants in pellet materials presenting adequate physicochemical, mechanical, and ecotoxicological properties in order to prevent leachability phenomena, their reclamation, and reuse being made easier by its granular form. Recommendation and perspectives: This project foresees long-term monitoring activity over several years (until 2014) to consider treatment durability.
|Titolo:||An innovative stabilization/solidification treatment for contaminated soil remediation: demonstration project results|
|Autori interni:||VOLPI GHIRARDINI, Annamaria|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2009|
|Rivista:||JOURNAL OF SOILS AND SEDIMENTS|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||2.1 Articolo su rivista |
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