Densely packed micro- and submicrometer electrode arrays of platinum and gold (the nominal number, N, of electrodes in each array varies between 225 and 3600) are fabricated by photolithographic technique and vapor deposition processes of metal films. The electrodes are conical-shaped and only their apexes are exposed to the electrolytic solution. The electrode arrays are characterized electrochemically in Ru(NH3)6Cl3 aqueous solutions by using cyclic voltammetry at low scan rates, to establish the number of electrochemically active electrodes (Nac) in each array; the geometric characterization is performed by scanning electron microscopy. All the investigated arrays provide steady-state voltammograms, indicating diffusionally independent behavior of each microelectrode. The number of microelectrodes that are active in the fabricated arrays depends on microelectrode density. In particular, for the arrays with N = 3600 and N = 225, the fraction of active sites is about 45% and 90%, respectively. The analytical performance of some of the Pt version of the arrays is tested in hydrogen peroxide solutions, allowing verifying that linear calibration plots over the concentration range (0.1-20 mM) are obtained. This dynamic range is larger than that typically recorded at smooth polycrystalline platinum electrodes (0.5-5 mM), and the better performance is attributed to both the higher aspect ratio of the cone geometry and the higher mass transport associated to each microelectrode of the array. Reproducibility (within 3.5%, r.s.d.) and long-term stability (within 5%, r.s.d., after 8 h continuous use) of the electrode systems are satisfactory. A low detection limit, based on the signal to noise ratio equal to 3, of 0.05 mM is found, which is adequate for a rapid monitoring of H2O2 in real samples and industrial processes.
DANIELE, Salvatore (Corresponding)
|Titolo:||Voltammetric characterization of micro- and submicrometer-electrode arrays of conical shape for electroanalytical use|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2006|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||2.1 Articolo su rivista |
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