Polemon (Aflīmūn), the Greek politician, rhetorician and sophist Marcus Antonius Polemon (ca. 88-144 A.D.) of Laodicea (near Denizli in Turkey) who authored a famous book on physiognomy. The original is lost, but it survives in a Greek abridgement by Adamantius and in Arabic versions. Polemon’s Arabic physiognomy was preserved in two recensions: one conserves much “Greek” material, while the other is an adaptation responding to the expectations of a Muslim readership. Polemon was considered the highest authority in physiognomy and mentioned in Arabic sources as “the Master of Physiognomy”. His book had a strong influence on later physiognomic works.
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