This chapter describes nanosized metal oxides (NMOs) and polyoxometalates (POMs) and offers new insights into the design of efficient, modular and multifunctional water treatment processes. NMOs are characterized by high specific surface areas, accessible sorption sites and short intra-particle diffusion distances. A promising strategy to improve NMO applicability to real-world wastewater treatment consists of the dispersion of NMOs with antibacterial properties into porous supports or synthetic and naturally occurring polymers. POMs are characterized by an unmatched versatility in terms of structural features, resulting in a broad range of potential applications in catalysis, material science and medicine. The development of efficient POM-based antimicrobial systems suitable for water treatment, wound dressing and medical applications is an active multidisciplinary challenge. The most attractive feature of POMs in terms of their development as biologically active compounds is that they can be obtained from cheap precursors. NMOs and PMOs offer several advantages and opportunities for the development of novel systems for water cleaning and disinfection.
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