The development of nanostructured materials enable the upgrade of traditional treatment with macro- and micro-sized iron. Nano-zerovalent iron (nZVI) present interesting characteristics like high surface-area-to-volume ratio, levels of stepped surface, and surface energies. nZVI is typically made of 5-40 nm sized Fe0/Fe-oxide particles and can rapidly transform many environmental contaminants into less harmful products (e.g. dehalogenation or metal reduction) being promising as an in situ remediation agent. We present the state-of-the-art of nZVI based treatment technologies considering their environmental and (eco-)toxicological implications.
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